In early October 1931, shortly after the Mukden Incident, at Taonan in the northwest of Liaoning province, General Chang Hai-peng, who was commander of the 2nd Provincial Defense Brigade, took command of the local forces including the and declared the district independent of China, in return for a shipment of a large quantity of military supplies by the Japanese Army.
General Chang Hai-peng followed his political move up by leading the men of the Hsingan Reclamation Army north to attack General Ma Zhanshan the newly appointed governor of Heilungkiang province. Soon after Chang Hai-peng advanced upon Ma's capital at Qiqihar, Ma offered to surrender it. Encouraged by General Shigeru Honjo, Chang advanced cautiously to accept General Ma's surrender. However Chang's advance guard was attacked by Ma's troops and it was routed.
Following the establishment of the State of Manchukuo in March 1932 Chang Hai-peng commanded his old force now renamed the Taoliao Army leading Manchukouan troops against the Manchurian volunteer armies and in the Japanese invasion of Rehe in Operation Nekka. Afterward he commanded the newly organized Rehe Guard Army, later the after the 1934 reorganization of the Manchukuoan Army.
*Jowett, Phillip J., ''Rays of the Rising Sun Vol 1.'', Helion & Co. Ltd. 2004.
* China's Anti-Japanese War Combat Operations
** Author : Guo Rugui, editor-in-chief Huang Yuzhang
** Press : Jiangsu People's Publishing House
** Date published : 2005-7-1
** This is transcribed at